Growing up, I enjoyed all sorts of games — Scrabble in particular, but also the various card games I enjoyed playing with my late father. Familiar as I was with the games in my day, I was not that up on those that were enjoyed hundreds of years ago. I was aware chess was played in early times, thanks to Renaissance painter Lucas van Leyden, who executed a painting depicting a group of men playing chess. Surely, there had to have been other games being played back then. I discovered there were when I came upon an early ink drawing from the 17th century, now in my collection, that shows officers and soldiers playing a game of dice. I subsequently learned that soldiers during this period often would flatten lead musket balls into cubes to make dice, or fashion dice out of wood. Testament that soldiers and sailors played dice goes back even earlier. Evidence of dice exists from a pair similar in size salvaged from the wreck of the Mary Rose. One of the largest ships in the English fleet, the remarkable Mary Rose sank in and finally was salvaged in During this historical recovery, an abundance of important and vital material was brought to the surface that gave us a glimpse into the lives of the sailors on board, as well as a good sense of what life was all about in Tudor England.
The game of dice has a long, interesting history
Early writings in classical Greek and Roman times refer to edible white roots, but these may have also been parsnips, or both. There are white rooted carrots in existence today, often used as animal feed or a novelty crop, but nevertheless gaining popularity for public consumption. While the carrot is known as a bright orange root crop, the original carrots domesticated in Central Asia ca.
Wild carrot is indigenous to Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia, with its center of diversity in present day Afghanistan Vavilov and Dorofeev Based on most historical records, the first evidence of carrot being cultivated as a food crop was in the Iranian Plateau and Persia in the 10th century BanlLa a,b, ; Brothwell and Brothwell , and molecular evidence supports a Central Asian origin of domesticated carrot Iorizzo et al. During Arab expansion post the tenth century CE, the roots were brought east to Andalusia in what is now Spain and from Spain spread to the rest of Europe.
Staten Island Advance/ Irving SilversteinThis 17th-century Dutch painting There is evidence of dice in Egyptian tombs dating as far back as.
Three works are included in this catalogue which have not received unanimous acceptance: Saint Praxedis , Girl with a Flute and A Young Woman Seated at the Virginals the latter not to be confused with the London National Gallery picture of similar title and motif. Since only Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. It is accepted as no. A Young Woman Seated at the Virginals again, not to be confused with the London National Gallery picture of similar name and motif has been recently accepted by the leading Vermeer expert Walter Liedtke and included it in his Vermeer: The Complete Catalogue of no.
Recently, Arthur K. Nonetheless, the lack of scholarly discussion which currently surrounds this work has encouraged the author of this site to label these works as questionable. Current acceptance is largely based in scientific evidence. It has been listed in an appendix as work “B.
8 quirky Dutch inventions
Eventually the cassette was replaced by the CD — and yeah, Philips invented that too Philips and Sony were working on the video side, too. In they released a new state-of-the-art format for at-home movie watching: the LaserDisc. Later they came up with their own replacement: the Blu-ray disc, in Unfortunately, this format was born at the end of the physical-media age of entertainment.
This thesis examines material culture gathered from domestic cesspits dating between. and is the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic, a unique and remarkable union of provinces the invention and rapid development of lead glass.
The monumental complex at Caserta, created by the Bourbon king Charles III in the midth century to rival Versailles and the Royal Palace in Madrid, is exceptional for the way in which it brings together a magnificent palace with its park and gardens, as well as natural woodland, hunting lodges and a silk factory. It is an eloquent expression of the Enlightenment in material form, integrated into, rather than imposed on, its natural setting.
The Convent of St Gall, a perfect example of a great Carolingian monastery, was, from the 8th century to its secularization in , one of the most important in Europe. Its library is one of the richest and oldest in the world and contains precious manuscripts such as the earliest-known architectural plan drawn on parchment. From to , the conventual area was rebuilt in Baroque style.
The cathedral and the library are the main features of this remarkable architectural complex, reflecting 12 centuries of continuous activity. The ruins of the ancient city of Aksum are found close to Ethiopia’s northern border.
Even with stiff competition at the international level, Canadians still claim that ice hockey is a product of their country. What if researchers have been able to provide evidence to the contrary? However, with a number of people wondering where hockey began, evidence points to the United Kingdom as the home to the earliest roots of hockey.
Windsor, Nova Scotia, even managed to get the Ministry of Transport to put up a highway sign saying it was the birthplace of hockey. Kingston claimed to be the birthplace of hockey.
Drebbel, a Dutch 17th century physicist, invented the first submarine – a big wooden structure, covered in greased leather, which used tubes to.
The Dutch are a smart, practical bunch and have been at the forefront of some pretty life changing inventions. There are some famous Dutch inventions that you probably already know about — the microscope, the telescope, pendulum clocks and of course, clogs. Unless you have dial up. Does anyone still use that?! However, there are some lesser known inventions that the Dutch have been proudly at the cutting edge of.
Ingenious, original, ground breaking….. Here at Stuff Dutch People Like we are delighted to share a few of these gems with you. Drebbel, a Dutch 17th century physicist, invented the first submarine — a big wooden structure, covered in greased leather, which used tubes to bring air underwater. He designed and built his submarine in , in England, and tested it in the Thames.
The Dutch Republic, Centre of the European Book Trade in the 17th Century
Advanced Search. Book Market. Dutch Book Trade. Civil Society.
E. Melanie Gifford, Style and Technique in Dutch Landscape. Painting in the s the date of introduction of a new pigment, may be in the study of painters’ instruction was crucial to the development of painting in seventeenth-century Italy. Pain according to Montpetit the inventor of the method, no degradation was to.
Engraving is one of the oldest art forms. Engraved designs have been found on prehistoric bones, stones, and cave walls. The technique of duplicating images goes back several thousand years to the Sumerians c. They conceived not only the idea of multiplication but also the mechanical principle, the roller, which in more sophisticated form became the printing press. On the basis of stone designs and seals found in China, there is speculation that the Chinese may have produced a primitive form of print—the rubbing —about the 2nd century ce.
The first authenticated prints rubbed from woodblocks were Buddhist charms printed in Japan and distributed between and ce. It is believed that the first wood-block prints on textiles were made by the Egyptians in the 6th or 7th century; but the earliest printed image with an authenticated date is a scroll of the Diamond Sutra one of the discourses of the Buddha printed by Wang Jie in ce , which was found in a cave in eastern Turkistan. In Europe, stamping to imprint royal seals and signatures preceded printing by rubbing or with a press.
The earliest documented impressed royal signature is that of Henry VI of England, dated Textile printing, however, was known in Europe in the 6th century, the designs consisting largely of repeated decorative patterns. Printing on paper developed from textile printing, following the introduction of paper from China. Soon afterward paper manufacturing began in France and then in Germany and Italy, notably by Fabriano, whose enterprise was established in
7 great Dutch inventions you never knew were Dutch
The Netherlands and its people have made numerous contributions to the world’s civilization in art, science, technology and engineering, economics and finance, cartography and geography, exploration and navigation, law and jurisprudence, thought and philosophy, medicine. Until the fall of Antwerp , the Dutch and Flemish were generally seen as one people.
The De Stijl school proposed simplicity and abstraction, both in architecture and painting, by using only straight horizontal and vertical lines and rectangular forms. Furthermore, their formal vocabulary was limited to the primary colours, red, yellow, and blue and the three primary values, black, white and grey. Oud — Brabantine Gothic , occasionally called Brabantian Gothic , is a significant variant of Gothic architecture that is typical for the Low Countries.
You’ve probably used a Dutch invention in your life without realizing it. Netherlands around the 16th or 17th century, but credit is in dispute.
A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America. Found in the waters off a small Dutch island, a seventeenth-century shipwreck provides an unparalleled view of the golden age of European trade. Sometimes, shipwrecks appear out of what seems to be merely sand. For more than years, a ship lay unseen just off the Dutch island of Texel in the southeastern part of the North Sea, known as the Wadden Sea. This unique tidal and wetland environment, created by the interaction of salt water and fresh water with the mainland and islands, is one of the most dynamic ecosystems in the world, hosting an extraordinarily diverse biomass.
It is home to more than 2, species of plants and animals, and is a crucial stopover on the major migratory flyways—between 10 and 12 million birds pass through each year. Hidden for centuries at a depth of nearly 30 feet, the so-called Burgzand Noord 17 wreck unexpectedly materialized on the seabed several years ago. A bit of the vessel and some artifacts were first spotted by members of a local amateur diving club in , but it was not until that more of the ship and its cargo began to emerge.
Because of the shifting nature of the seafloor and the need to protect the wreck and its contents from further illegal exploration, the artifacts from the site—which would eventually number more than 1,—were quickly removed. The wreck sits in an environment that inhibits the oxygen, bacteria, and fungi that typically break down organic material.
There, protected from light and currents, protein-based items of animal and insect origin, such as leather and silk, survived for centuries, while those of plant origin, such as book pages, and shirts, collars, and cuffs made of cotton or linen, are missing from the bundles brought up from the wreck, explains van Bommel. Around , a vessel called the Aanloop Molengat sank on the opposite side of Texel from Burgzand Noord There, both the plant fibers used to bale cattle hides and the poorly tanned hides themselves were recovered.
On busy days in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, hundreds of ships would anchor on the eastern side of Texel.
22 Things the Rest of the World Needs to Thank the Dutch For
Here are some of the most famous inventions to thank Dutch inventors for. Some of the biggest and best inventions have come from tiny Netherlands. If windmills pop to your mind as the best invention from the Netherlands, you would be mistaken think Persians or Chinese. Yet the Dutch have been a nation of inventors since using windmills to create farmland from marshes more than years ago.
The first Asian encounter with a Dutch invention Albert Clement paper on ‘The Telescope in the Seventeenth Century’ in Isis. Van Helden’s () is out-dated, but a more up to date general history of the city is not yet available.
Abraham Bloemaert Netherlandish. In the middle ground at left, nearly hidden in shadow, Moses strikes a rock to provide water for the Israelites during their flight from Egypt. Public Domain. Title: Moses Striking the Rock. Date: Medium: Oil on canvas.
A timeline of inventions
From the 15th through 17th centuries, Europe sought to expand its power and riches through a rigorous exploration of the world. The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration and the Great Navigations, was a period in European history from the early 15th century to the early 17th century. During this period, Europeans engaged in intensive exploration and early colonization of many parts of the world, establishing direct contact with Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Oceania.
history of technology thus becomes less an investigation of origins and inventions (a Envy and desire require a place in the history of 20th‐century technology, parts of the British Empire in Southeast Asia and Africa lagged far behind ;. of India (and, through Partition, Pakistan), Ceylon and the Dutch East Indies.
Being a small country has never stopped the Netherlands from setting out as adventurers and discovering new places. Apart from an awesome little drink called Gin nope, it was not invented by the Brits there are a number of other important inventions that are the brainchild of Dutch scientists, opticians, architects and more! Dutch inventor Cornelis Drebbel constructed a vessel in the s that could be navigated underwater.
He was employed by the English Royal Navy, which used the river Thames as a testing ground for the submarine. The submersible consisted of a wooden frame with leather stretched over it and oars were used to propel it. It is actually a pretty scary thought that there was only a piece of greased leather protecting you from the freezing ocean. He created a tall tower with a smoke effect to attract attention.